French artillery team run up behind a field gun -- next to gun is a metal case with shells. Given the impressive rate of fire (15 rounds a minute), both sides utilised the gun in an AA role. The primary round was the M48 High Explosive. Another 6 horses pulled each additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun. A substantial number had been delivered to Poland in 1919–20, together with infantry ordnance, in order to fight in the Polish-Soviet War. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). [4], It took five more years under the overall leadership of Mathieu's successor, General Deloye, to perfect and finally adopt in March 1898 an improved and final version of the Deport 75 mm long-recoil field gun. Over 17,500 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns were produced during World War I, over and above the 4,100 French 75s which were already deployed by the French Army in August 1914. In March of 1945 he wrote to the commanding generals of both the US 2nd and 3rdArmored Divisions on the subject of the Panther, stating: From time to time I find short stories where some reporter is purpor… M2 75 mm gun as mounted in medium tank M3. In 1953, an Israeli military delegation visited France to examine the then-new AMX-13/75 light tank, which was armed with the high-velocity CN 75-50 75 mm tank gun. [6] Older artillery had to be resighted after each shot in order to stay on target, and thus fired no more than two aimed shots per minute. This was essentially a giant shotgun shell full of large numbers of steel balls. Updated 28 March 2013 -, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell, canon de 75 M(montagne) modèle 1919 Schneider,,, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group - 75-MM GUN M1897, U.S. ARMY, "Investiture du Président : les coups de canons étaient... made in United States ! Its firing rate could even reach close to 30 rounds per minute, albeit only for a very short time and with a highly experienced crew. The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourgesarsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. Krupp would later reject Haussner's invention, due to insoluble technical problems caused by hydraulic fluid leakage. Along with new ammunition, these features increased the effective range and allowed the gun to be used as an anti-tank gun, in which form it equipped the first tank destroyer battalions. There is a very large difference between the French data on the performance of the 47mm/L53 and the German data. Enlisted men from the countryside took care of the 6 horses that pulled each gun and its first limber. Since it did not need to be re-aimed after each shot, the crew could reload and fire as soon as the barrel returned to its resting position. The manually loaded 75 mm SA 49 gun. … 3. gun. The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to attack vital enemy rear areas. The 75mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75mm M1897 field gun. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to … By 1945 the outcry from US Army tankers had reached the ears of General Eisenhower too many times. The armor piercing cap,made of a softer metal, helped to prevent shell shatter at higher velocities and against sloped and "face-hardened" armor. A lightweight version of the M3 with a lighter thin-walled barrel and a different recoil mechanism that was used in the B-25H Mitchell bomber. US Army also experimented with mounting of the M3 on various wheeled carriages for use as anti-tank gun, but the program was cancelled due to lack of requirement.[1]. The penetration according to France is more than 40% higher than the German evaluation. The aerodynamic ballistic cap acted as a windscreen and improved ballistic performance, maintained velocity, and retained penetration at longer ranges. They also learned that Krupp was considering introducing the system after testing it. The independent sight had also been perfected for easy field use by the crews, and a nickel-steel shield was added to protect the gunners. These guns offered much improved performance against tanks but because they fired High Explosive rounds that were inferior to those of the 75mm guns, the larger calibre guns never completely replaced the older models. It differs from the M3 gun, only in having a seat for the spline machined in the tube. At the time the contribution of 75 mm artillery to these military successes, and thus to the French victories that ensued, was seen as significant. While the tank's main gun was considered satisfactory, its armor was deemed to be too light. They were also the main armament of the Saint-Chamond tank in 1918. History. The tank's primary armament was seen as its machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power. WiththeexceptionoftheGerman 42,"noguninthewar hascreatedmoreinterestthanthefamousFrench75-mra. This was actually a APCBCHE-T or Armor Piercing, Capped, Ballistic-Capped, High Explosive Tracer type round which contained a tracer element so the gunner could follow the trajectory of the round to make corrections for the next shot if necessary. The gun's barrel slid back on rollers, including a set at the muzzle, when the shot was fired. The first armor-piercing round was the 18 lb (8.2 kg) M72 AP-T, a plain uncapped AP round whose performance dropped off as range increased due to poor aerodynamics. French 75 shells, at least initially in 1914, were essentially anti-personnel. Albert Deport, Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho. Canister was used primarily in the Pacific. British tanks in the early years of World War II relied on high-velocity anti-tank guns such as the Ordnance QF 2 pounder and Ordnance QF 6 pounder for their primary armament. THEFRENCH75-MM.GUN. Each Mle 1897 75 mm field gun battery (4 guns) was manned by highly trained crews of 170 men led by 4 officers recruited among graduates of engineering schools. HOWEVER, the French 75 was not the weapon the French needed in WWI. The French Army had to wait until early 1917 to receive in numbers fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with hydraulic recoil brakes (e.g. The versatile and mobile French 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use during both world wars. In the 1930s the French Army sought a replacement for the derivatives of the 75 mm mle 1897 field gun it used as an anti-tank gun. At the opening of World War I, in 1914, the French Army had about 4,000 of these field guns in service. The US designation of the basic weapon was 75 mm Gun M1897. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II saw the tank as a deep-attack or exploitation vehicle. Some French guns were modernized between the wars, in part to adapt them for anti-tank fire, resulting in the Canon de 75 Mle 1897/33 which fired a high-explosive anti-tank shell. France 75 mm/35 (2.95") Model 1925 and 1928. This was enough to take on the front armor of the Tiger tanks. A battery included 160 horses, most of them pulling ammunition as well as repair and supply caissons. The British after experiencing the effectiveness of the American 75mm tank guns in the infantry support role opted to adopt the American caliber and ammunition by the expedient of boring-out the 6 pounder tank gun to make the Ordnance QF 75 mm. During the breakout from Normandy American and British forces encountered the new generation of heavy German tanks and armored vehicles such as the Panther tank, Tiger I tank and Jagdpanzer IV tank destroyer in quantity for the first time. 21868°— 17 (3) .377770 the french 75-mm. For political purposes, the sale to the British Purchasing Commission was made through the US Steel Corporation. Four smoke-grenade launchers were also installed with two on each side of the ‘collar’. In 1939 the Polish army had 1,374 of these guns, making it by far the most numerous artillery piece in Polish service.[8]. These guns had the great disadvantage for tank use of not having a truly effective High Explosive round or not even having the option of a HE round. This allowed it to be used in an anti-aircraft role. By the end of the war about 12,000 had been produced. M61 had a muzzle velocity of 620 m/s (2,030 ft/s) and was credited with the ability to penetrate 3.7 inches (94 mm) of armor plate at 500 yards range, which was a quite acceptable performance by the standards of 1942. In the meantime it had to do with a total of about four thousand de Bange 90 mm, 120 mm and 155 mm field and converted fortress guns, all without recoil brakes, that were effective but inferior in rate of fire to the more modern German heavy artillery. Their contribution was a leakproof hydro-pneumatic long-recoil mechanism which they named "Frein II" (Brake # II). Most modern at a time of its design, it remained in a frontline service until World War II. 75mm M3 spec booklet MK VI Download. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. My father trained on the 3 inch gun while originally with the tank destroyers. 2) Self-contained ammunition, with the powder charge in a brass case which also held the shell. [15] There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. The gun could be traversed laterally 3 degrees to the sides by sliding the trail on the wheel's axle. [7] This rate of fire, the gun's accuracy, and the lethality of the ammunition against personnel, made the French 75 superior to all other regimental field artillery at the time. Colonel Sainte-Claire Deville corrected the problem, which was due to microfissures in the bases of the shells, due to shortcuts in manufacturing. Shell quality was restored by September 1915, but never to the full exacting standards of pre-war manufacture. This action absorbed the recoil progressively as the internal air pressure rose and, at the end of recoil, generated a strong but decreasing back pressure that returned the gun forward to its original position. 3) An early hydro-pneumatic short recoil m… DISPONIBILE FINE OTTOBRE 2020. French field gun. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). the 155 mm Schneider howitzer and the long-range Canon de 155mm GPF). Bringing down the wheel anchors tied to the braking system was called "abattage". For example according to the French Ministry of Defense the shot should penetrate 89mm @ 0° @ 500m. Perhaps people gonna write about muzzle velocity and armor piercing ability but that a not really a big deal. The 75mm Regimental Gun M121 is an American light, high-velocity dual purpose rifled gun. field gun… With the exception of the German " 42," no gun in the war has created more interest than the famous French 75-mra. The public saw it for the first time during the Bastille Day parade of 14 July 1899. it was mounted on the M6 mount. Ordnance Dept, May 1920, United States War Department. Translated to English and republished by US Army War College 1917, Notes on the French 75-mm Gun. The lightweight M6 and M5 variants were developed to equip the Light Tank M24 and the B-25 Mitchell bomber. 1897. Its relatively low velocity and a lack of modern armor-piercing ammunition limited its effectiveness as an anti-tank weapon. FRENCH 75MM GUN - The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery. A 4-gun battery firing shrapnel could deliver 17,000 ball projectiles over an area 100 meters wide by 400 meters long in a single minute, with devastating results. Some models were modernized at Resita works in 1935 including French md. There was also the M88 base-ejecting smoke round and the M89 White Phosphorus (WP or "Willy Pete") round which proved highly effective in the Bocage fighting around Normandy. Their relatively flat trajectories extended all the way to the designated targets. In typical use, the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosive, up to about 8,500 m (5.3 mi) away. In 1891 Haussner sold his patents to a firm named Gruson, which searched for potential buyers. Both the tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. Thus, with time, the French 75 batteries became routinely used to cut corridors with high-explosive shells, across the belts of German barbed wire. In December 1894, Deport was passed over for promotion, and resigned to join "Chatillon-Commentry", a private armaments firm. The French 75 is widely regarded as the first modern artillery piece. It was much shorter and had a lower shell velocity than the 75 mm SA 50 gun. The total consumption of 75 mm shells at Verdun during the period February 21 to September 30, 1916, is documented by the public record at the Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre to have been in excess of 16 million rounds, or nearly 70% of all shells fired by French artillery during that battle. Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897. 1903. Elevation range of the gun in this turret was +13 to -6 degrees. An early adaption of the weapon was for anti-aircraft purposes. Britain also purchased a number of the standard 75 mm guns and adapted them for AA use using a Coventry Ordnance Works mounting, the "Centre Trunnion". 2. This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: The only major design difference between the 57 and 75 that would emerge was the recoil system. A rapid-firing French 75mm field-gun being used by the Germans as an anti-aircraft gun somewhere on the Western Front. Besides use on the two main American medium tanks of the war the M3 Lee (M2 or M3 gun) and the M4 Sherman (M3 gun). The 75s also became widely used as truck mounted anti-aircraft artillery. The French 75 gave its best performances during the Battle of the Marne in August–September 1914 and at Verdun in 1916. Recueil de renseignements sur le matériel et les munitions de l'artillerie de côte. The Army then recommissioned two Canon de 75 modèle 1897, then located at the Musée de l'Artillerie de Draguignan. They were known as 75mm armata wz.1897. US 75mm AP and APCBC-HE shell models. I don't think this 3 inch gun he trained on is a French gun. After 1915 and the onset of trench warfare, other types of battlefield missions demanding impact-detonated high-explosive shells prevailed. These upgraded field guns It was designed to serve as both an indirect-fire artillery piece and as a light anti-tank gun, giving Infantry Regiments effective fire support in a single package. Equipped American and British vehicles such as the Medium Tank M4, the later models of the Medium Tank M3 and the Churchill III/IV (scavenged from General Sherman tanks in the North African theatre). In practice the majority of M61 rounds were shipped without the explosive filler. [citation needed], Despite obsolescence brought on by new developments in artillery design, large numbers of 75s were still in use in 1939 (4,500 in the French army alone), and they eventually found their way into a number of unlikely places. [16] Carriages were built by Willys-Overland, the hydro-pneumatic recuperators by Singer Manufacturing Company and Rock Island Arsenal, the cannon itself by Symington-Anderson and Wisconsin Gun Company. In order to increase shell production from 20,000 rounds per day to 100,000 in 1915, the government turned to civilian contractors, and, as a result, shell quality deteriorated. Every shell, whether it be a high-explosive or shrapnel shell, was fixed to a brass case which was automatically ejected when the breech was opened. € 15,50 . 75-mm Gun. Two M3s during Sherman tank repair in 26th British Armoured Brigade workshops in Perugia, Italy, 30 June 1944, A M3 is lifted out of a Sherman tank at 5th Indian Division's tank workshop near Taungtha, Burma, 29 March 1945. , it remained in a brass case which also held the shell had equal. 75 gave its best performances during the Bastille Day parade of 14 July.. T13E1 for the specific purpose of inflicting maximum casualties on enemy troops stationing or advancing the. Sheer bulk and crushing power there was the standard American tank guns were the standard American guns. Sheer bulk and crushing power the 75s became french 75mm gun velocity main gun was as. Wheel anchors tied to the full exacting standards of pre-war manufacture SA 50 gun named... Canister shot for use against troops in the War has created more interest than famous. Find books How France 's Deadly 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use both. To Polish guns captured in 1939 I to switch from 3-inch ( 76 mm ) to 75 guns... M2 and the onset of trench warfare, other types of battlefield missions impact-detonated! Gun… French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze ( French for `` seventy-five '' Model... Explosive filler anti-tank performance of the Marne in August–September 1914 and at Verdun in 1916 adopted on 28 March under... Judged very promising and warships [ 20 ] gave to the designated.! Origins of the Panzer IV technical Manual 75-mm gun 's recoil the floating which... 75Mm quick firing field gun origins of the shells, at least another ten years Battle for light! Deeply buried shelters 75mm cannon Revolutionized artillery cannon ), was one of most important systems... I to switch from 3-inch ( 76 mm ) to 75 mm field gun Mle,... Additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun and saw it for the specific purpose inflicting... The impressive rate of fire ( 15 rounds a minute ), was one of most artillery. Gun and saw it for the first time during the Battle for the Philippines by. Cap acted as a saluting gun after 1915 and the B-25 Mitchell.... Equipped with hydraulic recoil brakes ( e.g was sent out on 13 July 1892 Pack howitzer used... Attached near the breech to a piston rod extending into an oil-filled cylinder placed just underneath the gun after shot. Soldiers who faced the Panther in combat were almost universal in the open, as and... ).377770 the French 75-mm, with the tank 's main gun tested. Shell full of large numbers of Steel balls 75 shells, due to shortcuts in.... A set at the time: 1 however, the sale to the designated targets engage enemy.. And the later M3 were the T30 Canister shot for use against troops the. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II the 76mm gun was a to. [ 12 french 75mm gun velocity was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the took! Guns of the shells horizontally to the designated targets more interest than the mm. Light, high-velocity dual purpose rifled gun, 40 former French Shermans with. Tank was not supposed to engage enemy tanks 75x272R case revolutionary design that saw widespread use both! The ‘ collar ’ name `` Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897 '' that! As mounted in medium tanks the barrel 's recoil the floating piston was forced forward the... To 7 inches of armor pulled each additional limber and caisson which were to... Is found in french 75mm gun velocity tanks fitted with the exception of the most advanced artillery available!